To investigate the reproductive health of rural women of childbearing age in Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture and the influential factors, a cluster-sampling questionnaire was carried out among 800 18~50 years old rural women and 750 valid questionnaires were collected. The results showed that the prevalence of gynecological diseases was up to 63.1%, and the first three are Vaginitis,Cervicitis,Pelvic inflammation. There was significant difference in the prevalence of gynecological diseases among the women in different age groups and with different levels of education. The influential factors involve those of individual, family, and community, which include prevention of cervical cancer and breast cancer, knowledge about maternal health, regular gynecological examination, awareness of gynecological and sex health, pudendum cleaning, prenatal checkup, monthly family income, status in family, and community health condition and service. Intervening measures should be taken in multiple facets to improve the gynecological health of rural women of childbearing age.