Table of Content

    25 September 2022, Volume 43 Issue 5
    Investigation and evaluation of medicinal resources
    Studies on Military Materia Medica Resources in Western Hunan,China (Ⅲ):Investigation and Analysis of Plant Resources for Treating Snake and Insects Injury
    LI Zhen, XIAO Meiqi, LI Zhenghui, ZHANG Yangyang, XIANG Xiaomei, CHEN Gongxi
    Journal of Jishou University(Natural Sciences Edition), 2022, 43(5):  1-9. 
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    In order to understand the plant resources for treating snake and insect injuries in western Hunan,the resource library for military mateira medica is constructed.Field sampling survey and literature review were used to comprehensively analyze the military herbal resources of treating snake and insect injuries in western Hunan.The results show that there are 284 species of plants for treating snake and insect injuries in western Hunan,affiliated to 207 genera in 94 families.Living habits are mainly herbaceous,while the habitat is dominated by the forest.Distributed horizontally,plants are more abundant in the northern area than in the southern area.Vertically,species show a trend to increase first and then decrease with the increase of elevation.Among them,military herbs are the most distributed in the altitude range of 600 to 1 299 m.Regional geographical composition is complex and diverse.The families are dominated by a worldwide and pan-tropical distribution,and the genus is dominated by pan-tropical distribution and northern temperate distribution.Species are mainly distributed in East Asia,endemic to China and tropical Asia.The majority are of whole-part medicinal plants for variety of uses,with the right amount of fresh products mashed for the affected place or with right amount of decoction.At present,western Hunan province is rich in the plant resources for the treatment of snake and insect injuries,but the development and utilization is not appropriate,so the development and research should be strengthened for sustainable utilization.
    Microscopic Characteristics and TLC Identification of Tujia Herbal Medicine Viola diffusa
    SHE Yonghong, YANG Dequan
    Journal of Jishou University(Natural Sciences Edition), 2022, 43(5):  10-13. 
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    The microscopic structure and TLC identification of Tujia herbal medicine Viola diffusa were studied.Viola diffusa was selected as the control to establish TLC identification method.The method is simple to operate and can be used for the quality control of Viola diffusa herb.
    Preliminary Evaluation on the Safety of Aqueous Extract of the Alpinia japonica Rhizome in Tujia Medicine
    WANG Zirong, WU Meijing, XU Rui, XU Taijing, XIANG Lu, LIANG Yumin, CHEN Xi, XIANG Juan
    Journal of Jishou University(Natural Sciences Edition), 2022, 43(5):  14-19. 
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    The safety of the acute and subacute toxicity of aqueous extract of the Alpinia japonica (Thunb.) Miq rhizome (AAR) is studied.In acute toxicity test,ICR mice were divided into AAR group (maximum tolerated dose:5 g/kg) and control group.In subacute toxicity test,ICR mice were divided into low-dose AAR group (1.3 g/kg),high-dose AAR group (2.6 g/kg) and control group,and the drugs were administered by gavage once a day for 15 consecutive days.After administration,the behavior characteristics and weight changes of mice were observed,and the organ coefficients were recorded.The content of urea nitrogen and creatinine in plasma,and the activity of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in serum were detected.Histopathological examination of liver tissues were performed by H&E staining.In the acute toxicity test,there was no significant difference between the experimental group of mice in AAR group and the control group.In the subacute toxicity test,compared with the control group,the creatinine content of the high dose group was low (P<0.05),and the liver coefficient of the high dose group was high (P<0.05);the remaining organs' coefficients,the content of urea nitrogen and creatinine,and the activity of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase did not significantly differ from those of the control group;the liver histopathology showed no abnormality.There was no obvious acute toxicity and subacute toxicity in the aqueous extract of the Alpinia japonica rhizome.
    Study on Plant Resources of Military Materia Medica in Western Hunan (Ⅳ):Investigation and Analysis of Poisonous Plant Resources
    XIAO Meiqi, LI Zhen, LI Zhenhui, ZHANG Yangyang, XIANG Xiaomei, CHEN Gongxi
    Journal of Jishou University(Natural Sciences Edition), 2022, 43(5):  20-29. 
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    In order to enrich the military herbal resource database in western Hunan,and better develop and utilize the materia medica resources for military purposes,the toxic plant resources of military materia medica in Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture,Zhangjiajie City and its surrounding areas were statistically analyzed through field investigation and literature review.The results show that there are 203 species,belonging to 136 genera and 67 families of poisonous plants in Western Hunan;life habits are mainly of perennial herbs.The habitat is dominated by forest.As for the distribution,the number of poisonous plants increases first and then decreases with the increase of elevation.In the horizontal distribution,the abundance of poisonous plants in the northwest of Hunan is higher than that in the south.The differentiation of geographical elements from the family level to the genus level and then to the species level has gradually become larger.At the family level,most of the poisonous plants in western Hunan can be found around the world;at the genus level,most of them are distributed in the north temperate zone;at the species level,the dominant species are of east Asian species (endemically distributed in China).The majority of toxic plants are of whole-part toxic plants with small toxicity.The toxicological effects are mainly nervous system toxicity and mucosal irritation toxicity.
    Pharmaceutical chemistry
    Analysis of the Coagulant Activity and Chemical Components in Artemisia annua L.
    ZHAO Fafa, ZHANG Xiaorong
    Journal of Jishou University(Natural Sciences Edition), 2022, 43(5):  30-36. 
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    The pharmacodynamics substance in Artemisia annua L.was studied.The hemostasis chemical compositions were extracted by the organic solvent extraction method in Artemisia annua L..The hemostasis medicinal effect of the extract from Artemisia annua L.was detected using the coagulation plate method,the test tube method and the plasma recalcification time measurement method.The flavone compounds were separated from the butyl alcohol extract using Alkali dissolution-acid precipitation method.The spectroscopic properties were detected by the ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and the fluorescence spectroscopy.And the flavone compounds were identified of the physical and chemical properties.The terpenoids compounds were separated from the butyl alcohol extract by the low temperature method,and were analyzed using the thin layer chromatography (TLC).The results indicated that the butyl alcohol extract was the hemostasis pharmacodynamics substance in Artemisia annua L..The clotting effect was significant of the butyl alcohol extract tested by the three methods of the coagulation plate method,the test tube method and the plasma recalcification time measurement method.And the chemical composition analysis showed that a lot of flavone compounds and the terpenoids compounds were contained in the butyl alcohol extract.It can be concluded that the pharmacodynamics substance is the butyl alcohol extract from Artemisia annua L.,and the major chemical constituents include the flavone compounds and the terpenoids compounds.
    Extraction of Bletilla striata Polysaccharides and Detection of its Antibacterial Activity
    LUO Lingli, KUANG Yongbin, YU Xi, ZHANG Tao, FENG Qiuju
    Journal of Jishou University(Natural Sciences Edition), 2022, 43(5):  37-42. 
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    Bletilla striata polysaccharides were extracted by water extraction and alcohol precipitation,with different ratio of material to liquid,extraction temperature and extraction time as the research conditions and the extraction content as the index of orthogonal experiment,so as to determine the best extraction technology.Under the optimum conditions,the extracted polysaccharides were added to the ointment to make Bletilla striata ointment.The inhibitory effects of Bletilla striata polysaccharide and Bletilla striata ointment on the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were determined by filter paper diffusion method.The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions were as follows:the ratio of material to liquid was 1:35 (g:mL),the extraction temperature was 80 ℃ and the extraction time was 4.0 h.Under these extraction conditions,the yield of polysaccharide was 25.97%.When the mass concentration of Bletilla striata polysaccharide reached 0.33 g/mL,it had inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.When the mass concentration was increased to 0.66 g/mL,the bacteriostatic effect of polysaccharide extract was stronger,and the bacteriostatic effect on Escherichia coli was better than that of commercial Yifubaiying bacteriostatic paste.The performance of Bletilla striata ointment was stable and the bacteriostatic effect against Escherichia coli was stronger than Staphylococcus aureus.
    Pharmaceutical analysis
    Thin Layer Chromatographic Identification of Cynanchum otophyllum Decoction Pieces and the Standard Limit of Extraction Inspection
    YANG Dequan, SHE Yonghong, JI Linfang, DING Ye
    Journal of Jishou University(Natural Sciences Edition), 2022, 43(5):  43-46. 
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    A thin layer chromatographic identification method was established for decotion pieces of Cynanchum otophyllum.This method takes decotion pieces of Cynanchum otophyllum as the test sample,uses silica gel G thin layer plate,uses Cynanchum otophyllum as the control drug,uses ultrasonic treatment to prepare the test solution and the reference drug solution for 30 min,and uses cyclohexane ether butyl acetate glacial acetic acid (20∶6∶3∶0.2) as the developing agent.Under ultraviolet light (365 nm),the results showed that the chromatograms of 15 batches of decotion pieces of Cynanchum otophyllum were consistent with the chromatograms of Cynanchum otophyllum reference materials.This thin layer chromatographic method is stable and simple,and can be used to identify decotion pieces of Cynanchum otophyllum.According to the cold leaching method specified in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2020),the water-soluble extracts of 15 batches of decotion pieces of Cynanchum otophyllum were 15.55%~22.96%.Therefore,it is recommended that the limit of detection of the extracts of decotion pieces of Cynanchum otophyllum should be "not less than 15.0%".
    Determination of Sesamin in Compound Tongye Burn Oil by HPLC
    QIN Aitao, YANG Dequan, HAN Xiangyun, XU Yuhui
    Journal of Jishou University(Natural Sciences Edition), 2022, 43(5):  47-51. 
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    A method for the determination of sesamin in compound tongye burn oil by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was established.The chromatographic conditions were:tade-pak af-c18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm,5  μm);mobile phase:methanol water (80∶20);flow rate:0.8 mL/min;detection wavelength:287 nm;column temperature:35 ℃;injection volume:10  μL.The number of theoretical plates shall be calculated as sesamin and shall not be less than 5 000.The linearity of sesamin reference substance was good in the range of 0.020 18~0.403 6 g/L (R=1),the regression equation was Y=15 562X+ 9.37,the recovery of sesamin was 103.22%,and the precision RSD was 0.58%.The results show that the method is simple,rapid,accurate,sensitive and stable,and can be used for the content detection and quality control of sesamin in compound tongye burn oil.
    Simultaneous TLC Identification of Paulownia Leaf and Sesame Oil in Compound Tongye Burn Oil
    HAN Xiangyun, YANG Dequan, QIN Aitao, XU Yuhui
    Journal of Jishou University(Natural Sciences Edition), 2022, 43(5):  52-55. 
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    Qualitative identification of paulownia leaf and sjianyesame oil in compound Tongye burn oil was carried out by thin layer chromatography with medicinal tung leaf,ursolic acid and sesamin as reference materials.Silica gel G thin layer plate was used.The developer was cyclohexane ether butyl acetate glacial acetic acid (20∶5∶4∶0.2).The results showed that all spots in the solution chromatography of the test sample were separated clearly,ursolic acid Rf=0.45,sesamin Rf==0.23,Spots of the same color are displayed on the corresponding positions of the reference medicine and the reference substance.This method is simple and reproducible,and can be used for the quality control of compound Tongye burn oil.
    Pharmacological mechanism
    Research on Gastrointestinal Toxicity Evaluation of Dichroa Alkali Salt in Zebrafish
    LI Sidi, YE Zuguang, ZENG Xingyao, ZHOU Minggao, TAN Xiaowen, FAN Taiping, TAN Xinxin, SHENG Yihua
    Journal of Jishou University(Natural Sciences Edition), 2022, 43(5):  56-63. 
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    To systematically analyze the gastrointestinal toxicity of dichroa alkali salt and explore the model animals suitable for such toxic drugs,the LC10 and MNLC of dichroa alkali salt in zebrafish were observed.The intestinal effects of dichroa alkali salt were evaluated by the zebrafish model,including evaluation of intestinal peristalsis inhibition,intestinal phenotype,and tissue pathology of intestinal tract.Results showed that the LC10 and MNLC of dichroa alkali salt on zebrafish were about 10 μg/mL and 5 μg/mL,respectively.Zebrafish were treated by dichroa alkali salt with concentration of 0.5,1.67,5 and 10 μg/mL,and the intestinal contents of zebrafish increased significantly.The inhibition rates of intestinal peristalsis were 27.78%,61.11%,77.11% and 80.89%,respectively,which showed that all concentrations of dichroa alkali salt has obvious inhibitory effect on the intestinal peristalsis of zebra fish.The intestinal toxicity phenotype and histopathological observation showed that under the conditions of 0.5,1.67,5 and 10 μg/mL salt treatment,the intestinal folds were reduced or disappeared,the intestinal mucosa cells were denaturated,the intestinal mucosa was destroyed,the intestinal lumen was blurred,and the intestinal lumen was narrowed,and the severity was positively correlated with the incidence.Above all,dichroa alkali salt presents definite gastrointestinal toxicity.Zebrafish can be used as a model animal to systematically study the toxic effects and characteristics of gastrointestinal toxic drugs.
    Investigation of the Mechanism of Coptis chinensis for the Treatment of COVID-19 Based on Network Pharmacology and Molecular Docking
    FENG Bijun
    Journal of Jishou University(Natural Sciences Edition), 2022, 43(5):  64-73. 
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    Based on network pharmacology and molecular docking,the mechanism of coptis chinensis for the treatment of COVID-19 has been investigated.The Chinese herbal medicine systems pharmacology platform (TCMSP) was used to screen the active components and targets of Coptis chinensis.GeneCards and OMIM screened the disease targets of COVID-19,R screened the common targets of drugs and diseases,and Cytoscape constructed a "drug-active ingredient- target-disease” interaction network,STRING constructed a common target protein interaction network,ClueGo performed gene function analysis for common targets,and R performed Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis for common targets.Then molecular docking was performed between the core components of Coptis chinensis active components and the main targets for the treatment of COVID-19.The preliminary exploration obtained 14 active ingredients of Coptis chinensis with 235 targets and 341 genes related to COVID-19.The key targets of Coptis chinensis in the treatment of COVID-19 include VEGFA,IL6,POR,and PLAT.Molecular docking results showed that the core compound of Coptis chinensis has a certain affinity for VEGFA,IL6,POR,and PLAT.
    Study on the Mechanism of Lily in the Treatment of Cognitive Impairment Based on Network Pharmacology and Molecular Docking
    LIU Ye, FU Chuanjun, LIU Na, LI Xianhui, LIU Xihan
    Journal of Jishou University(Natural Sciences Edition), 2022, 43(5):  74-82. 
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    The mechanism of lily in the treatment of cognitive impairment was studied based on network pharmacology and molecular docking.The main active components and action targets of lily were obtained from TCMSP database.After screening,7 main active components were obtained.There were 465 potential action targets of the main active components of lily.Secondly,disease targets were obtained from GeneCards,OMIM,PharmGKB,DrugBank and CTD databases,and the intersection of lily chemical components and cognitive impairment targets was obtained by using Venny software.44 drug component-disease intersection targets were obtained.Using STRING database,the intersection target protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed.After screening,the core targets and core components were obtained.It was found that MAOB (monoamine oxidase B),CASP3 caspase 3),ESR1 (estrogen receptor),JUN (gene of chromosome 1),CASP8 (aspartic acid proteolytic enzyme 8),CASP9 (aspartic acid proteolytic enzyme 9),PGR (steroid receptor gene),AR (adrenergic receptor),SLC6A3 (dopamine transporter gene),PTGS2 (cyclooxygenase-2) were the key target proteins of lily pharmacodynamic components for the anti cognitive impairment effect.Metascape and DAVID platforms were used for GO function enrichment and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis,and Autodock Vina platform was used for molecular docking.The results showed that 4 active compounds of lily were related to 10 key core targets of cognitive impairment,and there were 30 key signal pathways involved in the regulation.Among them,stigmasterol,3-norcolchicine,β-Sitosterol,and rosin acid had high degree value.The target proteins with high degree value included MAOB,PTGS2,CASP3,CASP9,etc.The main pathways involved were neural activity ligand receptor interaction pathway,calcium signaling pathway,small cell lung cancer pathway and so on.The mechanism of lily in treating cognitive impairment may improve cognitive function by inhibiting the activity of monoamine oxidase B.
    Processing application
    Study on Traditional Medicinal Preparation Technology of Jixiang Cough Ointment
    LI Jin, LUO Yuanqiang, WU Yizhen, PENG Yong, HUANG Li
    Journal of Jishou University(Natural Sciences Edition), 2022, 43(5):  83-88. 
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    The standard for traditional medicinal preparation technology of Jixiang cough ointment has been established.The extraction rate (dry extract) reached 96.21% through three times of decoction with drinking water for 2 hours,2 hours,and 1 hour respectively.The extracts were filtered and combined for three times,and concentrated in the low-temperature hot reflux extraction and concentration equipment to obtain clear paste with a relative density of 1.15~1.25.A proper amount of rock sugar was boiled with water to make honeycomb-like syrup.When the relative density of syrup was greater than 1.4 (80 ℃),clear paste was added (the ratio of clear paste to syrup was 1∶1.5),and the paste was collected at normal pressure.The paste was concentrated with relative density 1.25~1.40,with addition of 0.1% potassium sorbate,and then was encapsulated.The extraction,concentration,sugar refining,paste collection,and paste collecting processes of Jixiang cough ointment are compatible with the equipments in the preparation room.It is a traditional Chinese medicinal preparation.The quality of the finished products is stable and meets the requirements,and it can be produced in the hospital preparation room.The preparation process is stable,simple,reproducible,and effective.
    A Case Analysis of Breast Cancer Patient with Drug-Induced Liver Injury
    PENG Jing, CHEN Chao, LI Min, XU Xingmin, SONG Kui, FU Yilan
    Journal of Jishou University(Natural Sciences Edition), 2022, 43(5):  89-92. 
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    By analyzing the conditions of liver injury,diagnosis and treatment process,medication for a case of breast cancer patient with drug-induced liver injury(DILI),selection of appropriate liver protective drugs in the process of anti-tumor treatment for DILI patients is explored,and the pharmaceutical care effect of clinical pharmacists on DILI patients is analyzed,which offers reference for the entire treatment cycle for similar cases.
    A Case Report of Thrombocytopenia Caused by Linezolid
    LONG Xiaokang, PENG Xin, XU Xingmin, SONG Kui, ZHENG Yunfei, CHEN Chao, LI Ming
    Journal of Jishou University(Natural Sciences Edition), 2022, 43(5):  93-96. 
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    This paper reports a case of linezolid induced thrombocytopenia,and introduces the mechanism,risk factors,prevention and treatment.According to the analysis of adverse reaction correlation evaluation,this case of thrombocytopenia is probably related to the use of linezolid.At present,the mechanism of linezolid induced thrombocytopenia is still unclear.Long-term medication,renal dysfunction,and low platelet count at baseline are independent risk factors.Clinical pharmacists should strengthen pharmaceutical care,improve early prevention awareness,and avoid adverse drug reactions.
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